• Respondent: There could be interview of 'guesses' if the respondent is not willing to answer genuinely or shows any other kind of reluctance or ignorance. There could be factors like fatigue, anxiety, stress, monotony that may hamper the process of correct answers affect the correct measurement.
• Situation: Anybody joining during the process of interview can affect the right answers from respondent, thereby affecting the rapport between the interviewer and interviewee.
• Measure: It could be the interviewer also who can affect negatively the process of interview by rewording or reordering questions. Even the behavior, dressing style and looks may encourage or discourage the replies from respondents. Mechanical processing if carelessly handled can distort the findings. Incorrect coding, faulty tabulation and statistical calculations specifically in the data analysis stage can also harm the process of correct measurement.
• Instrument: Defects in measuring instrument can definitely distort the process of measurement. Usage of complex words not understandable to the respondent, ambiguous meanings, printing errors, not appropriate space for replies, response choice omissions can make the measuring instrument defective. Poor sampling of the universe of items of concern can distort the complete process.
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